Textbook of Diabetes
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Textbook of Diabetes

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Cod produs/ISBN: 9781118912027

Disponibilitate: La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani

Autor: RIG Holt

Editura: Wiley

Limba: Engleza

Nr. pagini: 1104

Coperta: Hardcover

Dimensiuni: 217 x 285 x 47 mm

An aparitie: 1 Jan. 2017

 

Description:

Now in its fifth edition, the Textbook of Diabetes has established itself as the modern, well-illustrated, international guide to diabetes. Sensibly organized and easy to navigate, with exceptional illustrations, the Textbook hosts an unrivalled blend of clinical and scientific content. Highly-experienced editors from across the globe assemble an outstanding set of international contributors who provide insight on new developments in diabetes care and information on the latest treatment modalities used around the world. The fifth edition features an array of brand new chapters, on topics including:

Ischaemic Heart Disease

Glucagon in Islet Regulation

Microbiome and Diabetes

Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Diabetes and Cancer

End of Life Care in Diabetes

as well as a new section on Psychosocial aspects of diabetes.

In addition, all existing chapters are fully revised with the very latest developments, including the most recent guidelines from the ADA, EASD, DUK and NICE.  Via the companion website, readers can access a host of additional online materials such as:

200 interactive MCQ's to allow readers to self-assess their clinical knowledge

every figure from the book, available to download into presentations

fully searchable chapter pdfs

Once again, Textbook of Diabetes provides endocrinologists and diabetologists with a fresh, comprehensive and multi-media clinical resource to consult time and time again.

 

 

Table of Contents:

 

Part 1 Diabetes in its Historical and Social Context

1 The History of Diabetes Mellitus

Ancient times

The 17th and 18th centuries

The 19th century

The 20th century

Causes and natural history of diabetes

Chronic diabetic complications

Physiology

Management of diabetes

Diabetic ketoacidosis

Diabetic pregnancy

Archives

Notes

References

Further reading

2 Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes

Introduction

Definition

Classification of diabetes

Methods and criteria for diagnosing diabetes [5, 6]

Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for diagnosis of diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) [5, 6]

Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM)

Other specific types

Gestational diabetes (GDM)

Intermediate hyperglycemia or impaired glucose regulation (prediabetes)

Conclusion

References

3 Epidemiology of Type 1 Diabetes

Introduction

Occurrence of T1DM by age, sex, place, and time

Familial clustering and twin studies

Environmental risk factors for T1DM: clues from epidemiological studies

Mortality

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

4 Epidemiology of Type 2 Diabetes

Introduction

Risk factors for T2DM

Recent emerging risk factors

Methodological issues in the epidemiology of T2DM

Regional and ethnic patterns of T2DM worldwide

Impact of diabetes

Prevention of T2DM

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

5 The Global Burden of Diabetes

Introduction

Distribution

Major burdens

Economic costs of diabetes

Gaps and future directions

References

Part 2 Normal Physiology

6 Islet Function and Insulin Secretion

Introduction

Islet structure and function

Regulation of insulin secretion

Conclusions

References

7 Glucagon in Islet and Metabolic Regulation

Introduction

α-Cell anatomy and development

Proglucagon gene transcription, translation and peptide processing

Regulation of α-cell secretion

Glucagon actions: hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism

Non-hepatic effects of glucagon

Other α-cell peptides

Abnormalities of glucagon secretion and action in diabetes

Pharmacology based on glucagon action

References

8 Mechanism of Insulin Action

Introduction

Insulin receptor

IRS-proteins coordinate insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling

PI3K→AKT cascade

AKT→mTORC1 cascade

AKT→mTORC2→AKT cascade

AKT→FOXO cascade

Heterologous regulation and dysregulation of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling cascade

Post-translational regulation of insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling

IRS2 as a gateway to β-cell function

References

9 Control of Weight: How Do We Get Fat?

Introduction

Genetic factors

Environmental factors

Medications and toxins

Neuroendocrine and behavioral regulation of energy homeostasis and the gut microbiome

Conclusions

References

Part 3 Pathogenesis of Diabetes

10 Autoimmune Type 1 Diabetes

Introduction

Epidemiology

Etiopathophysiology

Etiology

Pathogenesis

Humoral autoimmunity

Conclusions

References

11 Other Disorders with Type 1 Phenotype

Introduction

Atypical diabetes: heterogeneous etiologies of young-onset diabetes

Monogenic diabetes

Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA)

Other subtypes of diabetes with type 1 phenotype

Conclusion

References

12 Abnormalities of Insulin Secretion and β-Cell Defects in Type 2 Diabetes

Introduction

Physiological insulin secretion

Natural history of β-cell failure

Genetic predisposition

Abnormalities of β-cell function precede overt diabetes

Insulin secretion progressively worsens after development of T2DM

β-Cell dysfunction: exhaustion or insufficient mass?

Conclusion

References

13 Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes

Definition and measurement of insulin resistance in humans

Insulin resistance as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)

Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle

Insulin resistance in the liver

Insulin resistance in adipose tissue

Stepwise development of tissue-specific insulin resistance

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

14 Genetic Architecture of Type 2 Diabetes

The diabetes epidemic

The diabetes spectrum

Heritability of T2DM

The genetic architecture of T2DM

Difficulties in assigning functions to associated genes

Genotype-based treatment

Little common genetic basis for T1DM and T2DM

A holistic view – systems genetics

Conclusions

References

15 Metabolic Disturbances in Diabetes

Introduction

Carbohydrate metabolism

Carbohydrate metabolism in type 1 diabetes

Carbohydrate metabolism in type 2 diabetes

Lipid metabolism in type 1 and type 2 diabetes

Protein metabolism in type 1 and type 2 diabetes

Counter-regulatory hormones

Diabetic ketoacidosis

References

16 Obesity and Diabetes

Introduction

Definition of obesity and the body fat distribution pattern

Obesity is the most potent risk factor for type 2 diabetes

Genetic predisposition for obesity and type 2 diabetes

Developmental programming of obesity and diabetes

Pathophysiology of obesity

Environmental factors promoting obesity and type 2 diabetes

Pathophysiologic links between obesity and type 2 diabetes

Treatment of obesity in the context of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes

Conclusions

References

17 The Microbiome and Diabetes

The microbiome

The intestinal microbiome is associated with body mass

Composition of the intestinal microbiome is altered in T2DM

The intestinal microbiome can influence intestinal permeability

Metabolic endotoxemia

Metabolic endotoxemia in T2DM

Modulation of the intestinal microbiome is associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity

The microbiome contributes to T2DM risk via innate immune pathways

The microbiome contributes to T2DM risk via modulation of enteroendocrine cell function

The microbiome contributes to T2DM risk via modulation of bile acids

Type 1 diabetes

Conclusions and perspectives

References

Part 4 Other Types of Diabetes

18 Monogenic Causes of Diabetes

Introduction

Maturity-onset diabetes of the young

Prevalence of MODY mutations

Strategies to improve case-finding

Use of diagnostic and predictive molecular testing in monogenic diabetes

Glucokinase MODY

HNF1A and HNF4A (transcription factor MODY)

Other transcription factor MODY

Neonatal diabetes and diabetes diagnosed within 6 months of life

Diabetes with extrapancreatic features

Insulin resistance

Insulin receptor gene mutations

Inherited lipodystrophies

Other monogenic conditions associated with insulin resistance

Conclusions

References

19 Drug-Induced Diabetes

Introduction

Glucocorticoids

Second-generation antipsychotics

Oral contraceptive agents

Menopause hormone therapy

Thiazide diuretics

Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists

HMG CoA reductase inhibitors

Anti-retroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Pentamidine

Fluoroquinolones

Calcineurin inhibitors

Diazoxide

Prevention and treatment strategies

References

20 Endocrine Disorders that Cause Diabetes

Introduction

Acromegaly

Cushing syndrome

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma

Other endocrine conditions causing disturbance of glucose tolerance

Endocrine disorders that associate with diabetes

References

21 Pancreatic Diseases and Diabetes

Introduction

Acute pancreatitis

Chronic pancreatitis

Tropical chronic pancreatitis

Hereditary hemochromatosis

Pancreatic neoplasia

Pancreatic surgery and diabetes

Cystic fibrosis

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Part 5 Managing the Patient with Diabetes

22 Clinical Presentations of Diabetes

Introduction

Clinical considerations at presentation

Types of diabetes

Thirst, polydipsia, and polyuria

Weight loss

Blurred vision

Infections

Diabetic ketoacidosis

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome

Macrovascular presentations

Microvascular presentations

Neuropathic syndromes

Pregnancy

Screening

Other presentations

Conclusions

References

23 The Aims of Diabetes Care

Introduction

St. Vincent's Declaration

The diabetes care team

Improving the outcome of the consultation

Following diagnosis

Ongoing clinic visits

Inpatient diabetes care

Involving people with diabetes in the planning of healthcare and service development

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

24 Educating the Person with Diabetes

Introduction

Theory underlying diabetes education

Identification and use of theory to guide method

Health education methods

Modalities of education

Educator skills in group-based diabetes education

Dialogue and participation in diabetes education—practical examples

Psychosocial support in diabetes education

Family perspectives in diabetes education

Evaluation of diabetes education

Conclusion

References

25 Lifestyle Issues: Diet

Introduction

Energy balance and body weight

Carbohydrate and diabetes

Dietary fat

Protein

Micronutrients

Salt or sodium

Sterols and stanols

Alcohol

Diet in special circumstances

References

26 Lifestyle Issues: Exercise

Defining exercise, type of exercise and intensity

Type 1 diabetes and exercise

Exercise and type 2 diabetes

Gestational diabetes and exercise

Exercise advice in type 1 and type 2 diabetes

References

27 Monitoring Diabetes

Why monitor?

Tests and their characteristics

Monitoring in clinical practice

The future of monitoring in diabetes

Conclusions

References

28 Drug Therapy: Special Considerations in Diabetes

Introduction

Drugs that raise blood glucose concentrations

Drugs that lower blood glucose concentration

Drug interactions that affect blood glucose concentrations

Hazards of general drugs when used in people with diabetes

Special precautions in diabetic complications

Drug interference with monitoring of diabetic control

Conclusions

References

Part 6 Treatment of Diabetes

29 Insulin and Insulin Treatment

Life (and death) before insulin

The discovery of insulin

The first insulins

Modifying the duration of action of insulin without altering its molecular structure

Modifying the duration of insulin action through altering its molecular structure

Biosimilar insulins

Different insulin concentrations

Reproducing physiological insulin delivery—the size of the problem

Oral, inhaled, intraperitoneal and intramuscular routes of insulin administration

Technique for subcutaneous injection of insulin

Complications of subcutaneous insulin therapy

Insulin regimens

Selecting the most appropriate insulin regimen

Declaration of interest

References

30 New Technologies for Glucose Monitoring and Insulin Administration

Introduction

Episodic blood glucose monitoring

Real-time continuous glucose monitoring

Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pumps

Closed-loop insulin delivery: the artificial pancreas

Insulin pens

Inhaled insulin

References

31 Oral Glucose-Lowering Agents

Introduction

Pathophysiological considerations

Guidelines and algorithms

Biguanides

Sulfonylureas

Meglitinides (short-acting prandial insulin releasers)

Thiazolidinediones

DPP-4 inhibitors

SGLT-2 inhibitors

α-Glucosidase inhibitors

Bromocriptine

Colesevelam

Antiobesity therapies

Fixed-dose combinations

Conclusions

References

32 Non-Insulin Parenteral Therapies

Introduction

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs)

Amylin and amylin analogs

References

33 How to Use Type 2 Diabetes Treatments in Clinical Practice: Combination Therapies

Introduction

Pathophysiological rationale for using multiple therapies

Individual glucose-lowering drug classes

Combination therapy: uses and evidence

Combination therapy: specific strategies

Guidelines

Future research needs

Conclusions

References

34 In-Hospital Treatment and Surgery in People with Diabetes

Introduction

Pathophysiology of hyperglycemia in acute illness

Evidence of harm from in-hospital hyperglycemia and effect of glucose lowering

Glycemic targets for hospitalized inpatients

Current recommended standards of care for hospital inpatients with diabetes

Management of in-hospital hyperglycemia

Avoiding and treating in-hospital hypoglycemia

Surgery in people with diabetes

Glucocorticoid use

Foot care

Conclusions

References

35 Hypoglycemia in Diabetes

Overview of the clinical problem

Physiology of glucose counter-regulation

Pathophysiology of glucose counter-regulation in diabetes

Risk factors for hypoglycemia in diabetes

Magnitude of the clinical problem of hypoglycemia in diabetes

Prevention and treatment of hypoglycemia in diabetes

The clinical problem of hypoglycemia in children

Perspective on hypoglycemia in diabetes

Acknowledgments

Disclosures

References

36 Acute Metabolic Complications of Diabetes: Diabetic Ketoacidosis and the Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

Introduction

Diabetic ketoacidosis

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state

References

Part 7 Microvascular Complications in Diabetes

37 Pathogenesis of Microvascular Complications

Diabetic angiopathy: definition and clinical features

Pathogenesis of microvascular complication: the role of hyperglycemia

Pathogenesis of microvascular complication: beyond hyperglycemia

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

38 Diabetic Retinopathy

Introduction

Pathophysiology

Development

Epidemiology

Prevention

Screening

Diagnosis

Treatment

Exploration of diabetic retinopathy

References

39 Diabetic Nephropathy

Introduction

Definitions

Screening for and classification of chronic kidney disease

Natural history and histopathology

Changing epidemiology of kidney disease in diabetes

Risk factors and markers for chronic kidney disease in diabetes

Investigation of kidney disease in diabetes

Prevention and management of diabetic kidney disease

Further management of chronic kidney disease stage 3 or poorer

Organization of care

Pregnancy in women with diabetes and chronic kidney disease

References

40 Diabetic Peripheral and Autonomic Neuropathy

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy

Diabetic autonomic neuropathy

References

Part 8 Macrovascular Complications in Diabetes

41 Pathogenesis of Macrovascular Complications in Diabetes

Epidemiology of diabetic macrovascular complications

Pathogenesis of diabetic macrovascular disease

Role of vasoactive hormones in diabetes-related atherosclerosis

The endothelin system

Urotensin II

TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and osteoprotegerin

Complement activation

Interventions to reduce diabetes-associated macrovascular complications

References

42 Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Hypertension

References

43 Diabetic Dyslipidemia and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

Introduction

CVD risk factors in diabetes

Guidelines and lipids in diabetes

Future drug developments and drug targets

Conclusions

References

44 Ischemic Heart Disease in Diabetes

Epidemiology

Pathophysiological perspective

How can cardiovascular risk be reduced in persons with diabetes?

Note

References

45 Congestive Heart Failure

Introduction

Symptoms and diagnosis

Epidemiology

Pathophysiology

Prognosis

Treatment

Gender aspects

References

46 Cerebrovascular Disease

Epidemiology of stroke in general

Diabetes as a risk factor for stroke

Stroke in people with diabetes

Prediabetes and other risk factors

Pathophysiology of ischemic stroke in diabetes

Primary prevention of stroke in persons with diabetes

Treatment of acute stroke in persons with diabetes

Secondary Prevention of Stroke in Diabetes

Conclusions

References

47 Peripheral Vascular Disease

Introduction

Peripheral arterial disease

Carotid artery disease

References

Part 9 Other Complications of Diabetes

48 Foot Problems in People with Diabetes

Introduction

Epidemiology and economic aspects of diabetic foot disease

Etiopathogenesis of diabetic foot lesions

Prevention of diabetic foot ulcers

Foot ulcers: diagnosis and management

Charcot neuroarthropathy

Conclusions

References

49 Sexual Function in Men and Women with Diabetes

Male erectile dysfunction

Female sexual dysfunction

Contraception

Hormone replacement therapy

References

50 Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Diabetes

Introduction

Epidemiology

Pathophysiology

Pathophysiology of diabetic enteropathy in humans

Clinical manifestations

Diagnostic tests

Management

Acknowledgment

References

51 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Introduction

Definition and epidemiology

NAFLD and the metabolic syndrome

NAFLD and diabetes

Histologic subtypes

Why does NASH occur?

Clinical features

Extrahepatic-associations of NAFLD

Natural history of NAFLD

Diagnosis and assessment

Management

References

52 The Skin in Diabetes

Introduction

Metabolic manifestations

Vascular changes

Infections

Associated conditions

Iatrogenic

References

53 Bone and Rheumatic Disorders in Diabetes

Musculoskeletal disease in diabetes

References

54 Diabetes and Cancer: Evidence for Risk, Methodology and Implications

Background

Diabetes and cancer risk: the epidemiological evidence

Interpretation of the epidemiological evidence

Hyperglycemia versus hpyerinsulinemia hypotheses

Pharmaco-epidemiology: glucose-lowering agents and cancer risk

Impact of diabetes on outcome after cancer diagnosis

Clinical implications

Acknowledgments

Conflict of interest

References

55 Diabetes and Infections

Introduction

Diabetes, the immune system and host factors

Specific infections either strongly associated with diabetes or in which the presence of diabetes is important

Respiratory tract infections and tuberculosis

Infections of the urinary tract

Intra-abdominal infections other than those within the urinary tract

Skin and superficial soft tissue infections

Principles of treatment, prevention, and general care

References

Part 10 Psychosocial Aspects of Diabetes

56 Psychological Factors and Diabetes Mellitus

Introduction

Psychological risk factors for the development of diabetes

The psychological impact of diabetes and its complications

The impact of psychological factors on diabetes management

The impact of behavioral factors (“adherence”) on diabetes management

Interventions to reduce psychological distress and improve quality of life, self-care, and glycemic control

Neuropsychological and cognitive consequences of diabetes

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

57 Psychiatric Disorders and Diabetes

Introduction

Mood disorders

Psychotic disorders

Eating disorders

Acknowledgments

References

58 Social Aspects of Diabetes

Introduction

Driving

Employment

Prison and custody

Insurance

Alcohol

Recreational drugs

Travel

Leaving home

References

Part 11 Diabetes in Special Groups

59 Diabetes in Childhood

Spectrum of diabetes in children

Manifestation, diagnosis, and initial treatment

Pediatric ambulatory diabetes care

Insulin treatment

Nutrition

Exercise

Hypoglycemia

Sick-day management

Monitoring and goals of diabetes management

Psychological care

Screening and early treatment of risk factors for complications and associated conditions

References

60 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: Diabetes in Transition

Introduction

Demographic information about diabetes

Physical changes during adolescence

Developmental stages

Changes in family involvement

Diabetes technologies

Type 2 diabetes in adolescence and transition

Acute and chronic complications in young adults diagnosed with diabetes in childhood

What is transition?

Problems with transition

Existing transition programs and interventions

Summary

References

61 Diabetes in Pregnancy

Introduction

Changes in glucose metabolism in pregnancy

Classification of diabetes in pregnancy

Effects of diabetes on pregnancy

Management of diabetes in pregnancy

Obstetric monitoring

Labor and delivery

Gestational diabetes

References

62 Diabetes in Old Age

Introduction

Epidemiology

Pathogenesis

Diabetes phenotype in old age

Clinical presentation

Diagnosis

Management

Special considerations in old age

Management of Diabetes

Conclusion

Future perspectives

References

63 Diabetes at the End of Life

Dying with diabetes

End of life

The management of diabetes at the end of life

Glycemic targets

Medicines management during the last year of life

Other medication

Insulin

Nutrition

Management of diabetes in those treated with glucocorticosteroids

Withdrawal of diabetes and other medication

Workforce

References

Part 12 Delivery and Organization of Diabetes Care

64 The Role of the Multidisciplinary Team Across Primary and Secondary Care

Background

Upskilling of primary or community care professionals in multidisciplinary teams

Support of multidisciplinary teams in structured patient education in diabetes

Multidisciplinary teams in diabetes care models

Enhancement of multidisciplinary teams through the use of information technology

Multidisciplinary teams in the management of complexities in CVD risk prevention

Multidisciplinary teams in renal disease in diabetes

Multidisciplinary teams in the care of people with diabetic retinopathy

Multidisciplinary teams in the care of people with diabetic foot problems

Multidisciplinary teams in the care of women with diabetes in pregnancy

Multidisciplinary teams in the care of young people with T2DM

Multidisciplinary teams in the care of elderly people with diabetes

The staff composition of a multidisciplinary diabetes team

Conclusion

References

65 Models of Diabetes Care Across Different Resource Settings

Introduction

A comprehensive approach

Integrated healthcare

Continuity, access, coordination, and teamwork

Patient-centered care

A family and community orientation

Clinical governance

Information technology

Conclusion

References

Part 13 Future Directions

66 Future Drug Treatments for Type 1 Diabetes

Introduction

New biosynthetic human insulin analogs

Alternative means of accelerating insulin absorption and action

New generation of insulins in development

Adjunctive therapies

Artificial pancreas development

Improved glucagon preparations

Conclusion

References

67 Future Drug Treatments for Type 2 Diabetes

Introduction

Development of new antidiabetes agents

Modifiers of carbohydrate digestion and absorption

Supporting pancreatic β-cell function

Inhibitors of glucagon secretion and action

Insulin mimetic agents

Insulin potentiating agents

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonists

Vitamins and minerals

Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 inhibitors

Sodium–glucose co-transporter inhibitors

Suppression of glucose production

Antiobesity agents

Sirtuins

Pharmacogenomics

Safety

Conclusion

References

68 Stem Cell Therapy in Diabetes

Why use stem cells in individuals with diabetes?

What is a stem cell?

Stem cells for insulin replacement

Healing the heart

Creating new vessels

Conclusions

References

69 Islet Transplantation

Introduction

Background history

Early human studies

Pancreas transplantation

Islet transplantation and the Edmonton Protocol in the year 2000

Islet transplantation current state-of-the-art

Islet transplantation outcomes

Indications and contraindications for islet transplantation

Patient evaluation

Challenges and future directions

Summary and conclusions

References

70 Gene Therapy for Diabetes

Introduction to gene therapy

Gene therapy for diabetes

Conclusions and perspectives

References

71 Future Models of Diabetes Care

Introduction

The Chronic Care Model

Telemedicine

References

Index

EULA

 


An aparitie 1 Jan. 2017
Autor RIG Holt
Dimensiuni 217 x 285 x 47 mm
Editura Wiley
Format Hardcover
ISBN 9781118912027
Limba Engleza
Nr pag 1104

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