Modern Ophthalmic Optics

Modern Ophthalmic Optics

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Cod produs/ISBN: 9781107110748

Disponibilitate: La comanda in aproximativ 4 saptamani

Limba: Engleza

Nr. pagini: 562

Coperta: Hardcover

Dimensiuni: 17.78 x 3.05 x 25.4 cm

An aparitie: 11 April 2019




This book is a comprehensive account of the most recent developments in modern ophthalmic optics, ideal for researchers, manufacturers and practitioners. Topics discussed include free-form technology, modern lens materials, measuring techniques, contact and intraocular lenses, progressive power lenses, ocular protection and coatings.


Table of Contents:


1 Ophthalmic Materials

1.1 Introduction

1.2 History of Glass and Glass Manufacturing

1.3 Glass Properties

1.3.1 Composition

1.3.2 Refractive Index and Dispersion

1.3.3 Transmittance

1.3.4 Mechanical Properties

1.3.5 Chemical Properties of Glass

1.4 History of the Optical Polymers Employed in the Ophthalmic Industry

1.5 Properties of Optical Polymers

1.5.1 Composition and Manufacturing of Polymers

1.5.2 Optical Properties of Polymers

1.5.3 Mechanical Properties of Polymers

1.5.4 Chemical and Biological Properties of Polymers

1.6 Summary of Ophthalmic Materials

2 Surfaces in Ophthalmic Lenses

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Surfaces with Revolution Symmetry

2.2.1 Sphere

2.2.2 Conicoids

2.2.3 Other Aspherics with Revolution Symmetry

2.3 Surfaces with Axial Symmetry

2.3.1 Cylinder

2.3.2 Toric Surfaces

2.3.3 Astigmatic Surfaces with Aspherical Sections

2.4 Surfaces with Many Degrees of Freedom

2.4.1 Mesh-Defined Surfaces

2.4.2 Surfaces Defined by Polynomials

3 Wavefronts and Rays

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Vergence and Wavefront

3.2.1 Vergence of Spherical Wavefronts

3.2.2 Vergence of Astigmatic Wavefronts

3.3 Ray Propagation

3.3.1 Propagation of Astigmatic Vergences

3.4 Refraction

3.4.1 Snell’s Law in Space

3.4.2 Abbe’s Invariant for Astigmatic Systems

4 Single Vision Lenses

4.1 Introduction

4.1.1 Matrices and Lens Power

4.2 Geometrical Aspects

4.2.1 Classification Based on the Curvature Radius of the Lens Surfaces

4.2.2 Classification Based on the Type of Surfaces

4.2.3 Lens Thickness

4.3 Paraxial Optical Properties

4.3.1 Optical Axis and Optical Center

4.3.2 Back Vertex Power

4.3.3 Thin Lens Approximation

4.3.4 Forms of Astigmatic Power: Spherocylindrical and Crossed-Cylinder

4.3.5 Power Referred to Principal Planes

4.3.6 Paraxial Computations for Ophthalmic Lenses

4.3.7 Spherotoric Lenses: Computing Power by Meridians

4.3.8 Relationship between Lens Power and Thickness

5 The Lens-Eye System

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Basic Optical Physiology

5.2.1 The Eye

5.2.2 Eye Aberrations and Refractive Errors

5.2.3 Eye Aberration, Refractive Error and Zernike Polynomials

5.2.4 The Nature of Curvature: Matrix and Vector Representation

5.3 Compensation of Refractive Errors

5.3.1 Large Field Compensation

5.3.2 Compensation Principle for Refractive Errors

5.3.3 The Size of the Eye, Emmetropization and Myopia

5.3.4 Visual Acuity

5.4 Prismatic Effects

5.4.1 Propagation and Refraction of Rays through Astigmatic Systems

5.4.2 Thin Plane Prisms

5.4.3 Deviation of Small Beams by Ophthalmic Lenses: Eye Deviation

5.4.4 Prismatic Effect and Lens Thickness

5.4.5 Prismatic Imbalance

5.4.6 Decentered Lenses

5.5 Magnification and Field of View

5.5.1 Field of View

5.5.2 Magnification

5.5.3 Aniseikonia

6 Aberrations and Lens Design

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Aberrations of the Lens-Eye System

6.3 Classical Theory of Ophthalmic Lens Design

6.3.1 Lenses with Revolution Symmetry

6.3.2 Design of Astigmatic Lenses and Exact Ray Tracing

6.3.3 Lens Optimization for the Static Eye: Control of Peripheral Defocus

6.4 Modern (“Free-Form”) Lens Design

7 Optics of Contact and Intraocular Lenses

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Optical Properties of Contact Lenses

7.2.1 Power of Rigid (RGP) Contact Lens with Spherical Surfaces

7.2.2 Power of RGP Contact Lenses with Toric Surfaces

7.2.3 Power of Soft Contact Lenses

7.3 Multifocal Contact Lens Designs

7.4 Optical Properties of Intraocular Lenses

7.5 Design of Multifocal Intraocular Lenses

8 Multifocal Lenses

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Presbyopia and the Compensation of Near Vision

8.2.1 Accommodation and the Presbyopic Eye

8.2.2 Near Vision and Lens Effectiveness

8.2.3 Compensation of Presbyopia: Ranges of Clear Vision

8.3 Bifocal Lenses

8.3.1 Introduction

8.3.2 Thin Lens Model of Bifocal Lenses: Power Relations

8.3.3 Thin Lens Model of Bifocal Lenses: Prismatic Effects

8.3.4 Image Jump

8.4 Progressive Lenses

8.4.1 Introduction

8.4.2 Low-Curvature Model of a Progressive Surface

8.4.3 Characteristics of Progressive Lenses

8.4.4 Progressive Lens Performance

8.4.5 Free-Form Technology and Custom-Designed PPLs

9 Low Vision Aids and High Power Lenses

9.1 Introduction

9.2 The Problem of Low Vision Compensation

9.2.1 Defining Low Vision

9.2.2 Compensating Low Vision: Visual Magnification

9.2.3 Role of Field of View, Depth of Field and Image Quality in Low Vision Compensation

9.3 Low Vision Aids for Close Objects: Magnifiers

9.3.1 Optical Characteristics of a Magnifier

9.3.2 Optical Design of Magnifiers

9.4 Low Vision Aids for Distant Objects: Telescopes

9.4.1 Afocal Telescopes

9.4.2 Nonafocal Telescopes

9.4.3 Other Optical Properties of Telescopes: Field of View and Depth of Focus

9.4.4 Telescopes in Near Vision: Telemicroscope

9.5 Low Vision Aids: Field Increasing Aids

9.6 High Power Ophthalmic Lenses

9.6.1 High Power Positive Lenses

9.6.2 High Power Negative Lenses

10 Lens Manufacturing and Measurement

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Lens Surfacing

10.2.1 Lapping

10.2.2 Sphero-Torical Generators

10.2.3 Free-Form Surfacing

10.2.4 Injection Molding and Casting

10.3 Free-Form Lens Manufacturing

10.4 Lens Measurement

10.4.1 Lens Gauges and Spherometers

10.4.2 Focimeters (Optical or Digital)

10.4.3 Lens Mappers

10.4.4 PPL Measurement and ISO Standards

11 Filters and Coatings

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Ocular Hazards Due to Electromagnetic Radiation

11.3 Filters for Ocular Protection

11.3.1 Optical Characteristics of Ophthalmic Filters

11.3.2 Types of Ophthalmic Filters

11.3.3 Prescription of Ophthalmic Filters

11.3.4 Occupational Eye Protective Devices

11.4 Anti-Reflective Coatings

11.4.1 Ghost Images

11.4.2 Thin Film Anti-Reflective Coatings

11.5 Other Coatings

11.5.1 Hard Coatings

11.5.2 Hydrophobic Coatings

11.5.3 Order of Deposition and Compatibility

Appendix A Frames

A.1 Historical Notes

A.2 Frame Materials

A.2.1 Plastics

A.2.2 Metals

A.2.3 Composite and Special Materials

A.3 Elements and Dimensions of Frames

A.3.1 Elements of a Plastic Frame

A.3.2 Elements of a Metallic Frame

A.3.3 Elements of a Rimless Frame

A.3.4 Spectacle Lens Frame Dimensions and Markings

A.4 Lens Centering

Appendix B Introduction to Matrix Algebra

B.1 Introduction

B.2 Matrices

B.3 Definitions

B.4 Operations with Vectors and Matrices

B.5 Axis Rotation

B.6 Interpretation of the Components of a 2D Direction Vector

Appendix C Introduction to Surface Geometry

C.1 Introduction

C.2 Curves

C.2.1 Curve Definition

C.2.2 Tangent Vector

C.2.3 Normal and Curvature Vectors for a Plane Curve

C.2.4 Tangent, Normal and Curvature for Nonplanar Curves

C.3 Surfaces

C.3.1 Surface Definition

C.3.2 Tangents and Normal Vectors

C.3.3 Main Curvatures

C.4 Geometry of the Parabolic Approximation

C.4.1 Parabolic Approximation

C.4.2 Tangent and Normal Vectors under Parabolic Approximation

C.4.3 Curvature under Parabolic Approximation

Appendix D Local Dioptric Power Matrix

D.1 Introduction

D.2 Local Dioptric Power Matrix from Paraxial Ray Tracing

D.3 Local Dioptric Power Matrix from Wavefront

Appendix E Seidel Aberrations and Zernike Polynomials

E.1 Sign Conventions and Coordinate Systems

E.2 Seidel Aberrations

E.2.1 Introduction

E.2.2 Spherical Aberration

E.2.3 Coma

E.2.4 Oblique Astigmatism

E.2.5 Field Curvature

E.2.6 Distortion

E.3 Zernike Polynomials

E.4 Relation between Zernike and Seidel Aberrations

E.4.1 Measuring Image Quality: PSF and MTF

Appendix F Abelès Theory of Multilayer Films

F.1 Introduction

F.2 Transfer Matrix

F.3 Reflectance of a Multilayer Film




An aparitie 11 April 2019
Autor José Alonso, José A. Gómez-Pedrero, Juan A. Quiroga
Dimensiuni 17.78 x 3.05 x 25.4 cm
Editura Cambridge University Press
Format Hardcover
ISBN 9781107110748
Limba Engleza
Nr pag 562

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